Kudos to HP for teaching me about my Epson Printer (ADF produces streaks)

This was originally published in 2017, but is still relevant.

I was getting annoying vertical lines in my copies and scans whenever I used the ADF (Automatic Document Feed) on my Epson 2660.

I found some information about cleaning the glass strip next to the flatbed, but it didn't work, and googling the symptom for Epson printers was no help at all.

Then I generalized my search, and found an HP video that solved my problem. It's the second part of the video that got it done, so don't give up if the first method doesn't work.

In the second method, they actually show you a trick for how to locate the tiny dirt specks that are causing the streaks. In my case, there were three tiny dirt specks that were causing three vertical lines.

It worked! Try either of these two links (they're identical).

HP Video in Youtube

Cambridge Masks

I love my Cambridge masks, and have bought some more. I originally bought them for my family's plane flights. But now I use them for Covid-19.

Cambridge masks are adjustable, and more comfortable than other masks I've tried, such as the regular cotton and the disposable masks. But I keep returning to my Cambridge masks.

Here's what's cool about them in the days of Coivd: you can deactivate the valve for the pandemic. https://cambridgemask.com/sh…/accessories/valve-deactivator/

The reason for the temporary deactivation is that while these masks are excellent in every way, including plane flights and pollution, the valve, meant for the wearer's comfort, is not approved by the CDC for source control.

This means that although the valve allows for maximum comfort to the wearer, it allows a little too much exhalation out into the air. It protects you, but needs an alteration to protect others.

Here's what you can do to make your Cambridge mask perfect for Covid: Valve Deactivator

Solved! I re-imaged my computer and then couldn't activate Corel Paint Shop Pro X7

This might pertain to other versions of Paint Shop Pro as well. I don't know. Here's what happened to me:

In 2020 I was still running Corel Paint Shop Pro X7. But I had to make some changes to my laptop that required a complete reinstall of the Windows OS.

When I tried to reinstall Corel Paint Shop Pro X7, I ran into roadblocks while trying to activate it. They kept trying to sell me the new version.

Finally I went into a chat, and learned there that support for X7 has been discontinued, but if I had the serial number AND the invoice number, the chat rep would send me to a download link that worked.

So if something similar happens to you, use the chat, and be ready with anything you can scrounge up from having purchased the product.

Solved! Simple, fast delete of files and folders from Buffalo NAS

I'm on a Windows 10 laptop, with my Buffalo NAS mapped as a drive. But deleting files and folders is a bear if you're using File Explorer. It can take days.


  1. Go into your Buffalo Admin panel
  2. Advanced Settings
  3. Webaccess Settings
  4. Find your BuffaloNAS.com Name and BuffaloNAS.com Key 
  5. Go into the BuffaloNAS.com server 
  6. Type in your BuffaloNAS.com Name (I didn't seem to need the key)
  7. Sign in as admin
  8. Be careful that you are only deleting files you are sure you want gone. 
  9. It takes only a few minutes, at most
  10. Don't forget to empty the trash, too

Never delete from your NAS device with File Explorer ever again! 

Amazon Smart Home


I have several smart speakers in my home. Most of them are Alexa, and I also have a few Google speakers. This post is about using smart home devices, which I control only with Alexa, and so this post is about Alexa. (I mostly restrict my use of my Google speakers to asking for the news and weather, and they also broaden my choices in music so that I'm not stuck only with Amazon's free music choices.)

All Things Amazon and Alexa

I have several smarthome plugs and other smarthome devices, all different brands because I buy whatever's cheapest:

  1. Amazon   (plug)
  2. Amazon   (Echo Button)
  3. Gosund    (plug)
  4. Phillips    (Hue Bridge)
  5. Wemo      (plug)
The name of the OEM app on my phone that controls each:

  1. Amazon plug......................Amazon Alexa app
  2. Amazon Echo Button.........Amazon Alexa app
  3. Gosund plug.......................Smart Life app* (see below)
  4. Phillips Hue Bridge............Hue app
  5. Wemo plug.........................Wemo app
The name of the app that does all the good stuff, like controlling groups and routines:
  • Alexa app (yup that's all)
And who do I give voice instructions to? Alexa speaker devices:
  • Echo Show (I have one of these, and it's in the kitchen)
  • Echo Dot (I have two of these)
  • Echo (I have one of these)
Some general notes including what to do when things go wrong:
  1. When a plug shows solid red, it's working. Blue means that it's not working.
  2. If you don't know what's wrong, go back to the OEM app first, and verify that the device is recognized
  3. If Alexa can't find your device any more, unplug the device for at least ten seconds. Then press the reset button and hold it down while plugging it back in and keep holding it until it is blinking blue alternating with red. Then tell Amazon to find the device. You will then have to add it back to devices, routines, and groups.
  4. When using your phone to re-connect a device, your phone should be connected by 2.4GHz connection for most of them. However, I have an Amazon plug which connects by 5 GHz, so be sure your phone is connected by 5 GHz in that case.
  5. When you're done, you can reconnect the wifi on your phone however you want.
  6. If you get a new phone, and you don't add back the manufacturer app to your new phone, everything should still work, until something goes wrong again. Then add back the app if needed.
  7. The Amazon Echo Button is not a toggle button. You cannot use it, for example, to turn on and off a light switch. Instead, it kicks off one routine only (one routine, however, can do many things.) I have an Echo Button that I press in the morning which kicks off a routine to turn off the whitenoise machine, start my coffee, play morning music on my kitchen Echo Show, and turn on a few powerstrips that need to be on during the day. 

*Notes about the Gosund devices 
  1. There's also a Gosund app but it's buggy. Smart Life is a third party app for Gosund devices that works better. I never use the Gosund app, and I consider Smart Life to be the Gosund OEM app.
  2. When using the Alexa function to find the device, you won't see the names "Gosund" or "Smart Life." Instead, use the one called "Tan Tan."
  3. When setting up the Gosund switch in the Smart Life app, look for others-->Connector(Wi-Fi)


It got harder to install Office 2010

I've moved around a 3 computer license for Office 2010 Home many many times. I know the routine. I have to put in the product code, but then it tells me I have it on too many computers, so I have to click the radio button for making a phone call.

But today when I went through the routine, the message said that phone calls were no longer available. I was stuck.

So I googled the exact message it threw, and lo and behold, I found a search hit with the phone number. I called that number, and that triggered a similar process as the old kind (many sets of six numbers) but it required me to do it by phone, rather than web.

It worked.

For U.S.A., the phone number was 866-421-7141

Solved! Epson WF-2660 printing uniformely faded printouts


The difference is whether I print from the cloud or the network. From the cloud, it's faded. 

From the network, it's not.

In the print dialogue, change the quality back to "standard" and it should stay that way.

It appears that the default got changed to draft.

This was hard to find in the print dialogue. Look closely.

Solved! Network Drive has a red x after boot

It's been a problem since the beginning of time. All it takes is clicking on the drive to fix the problem. However, I have a scheduled app that runs on a schedule. It fails if I don't explicitly open that folder. That's kinda a pain.

The Solution

  1. Check what speed your network adapter is connecting at. You can find this in Network and Sharing Center. Or find instructions here. Mine is 1.0 Gbps
  2. Go to control panel - network and sharing center
  3. Change adapter settings
  4. Right-click the correct adapter and click properties
  5. Click Configure
  6. Go to Advanced tab
  7. Scroll down to Speed & Duplex and set this manually to whatever you are currently connected at. I set mine to 1.0 Gbps
  8. Click OK, then OK and reboot, and see that there's no red X.

Solved! Easier way to add TV Shows to Plex with no renaming

Some Notes

  • I have a tv show on my plex media server hard drive that has four seasons. 
  • I want to keep my conventional folder naming style for Windows. That is, I have four folders for the four seasons, and then each episode has the episode number and name the way I want it
  • I tried to put the four folders into a Plex TV Shows folder, but got no luck. My googling also showed that I would have to use a specific naming convention, which I don't want to do.

  1. I ditched the Plex TV Shows folder
  2. I created a Plex Personal Video folder instead
  3. I named the playlist the name of my tv show
  4. I found a way to add all four folders at once to the playlist
  5. As a result, I can watch all the episode without them stopping after each one

Solved! Valley Bank and Quicken not playing nicely together any more

Valley Bank explained to me that there was a quicken data breach a few weeks ago.

Reference number: LTK1119406713255X Please use this ticket number in any correspondence with us.
Subject: Possible bug on the settings page

Thank you for contacting us.
The "My Settings" page is working. Please make sure there is no issue with your computer. Please close and then start again. There is only room for two phone numbers, and the system cannot take a duplicate number.
As far as Quicken, there was a security breach about two-three weeks ago on Quicken and QuickBooks. That is why now there is an additional security verification code.
Please feel free to contact us at 1-800-522-4100 ext 3012, if you have any additional questions.
Online Banking Dept.

Sunday thru Saturday, 8 AM to 5 PM ET.

Reference number: LTK1119406713255X Please use this ticket number in any correspondence with us.
Subject: Possible bug on the settings page

Thank you for contacting us.
Please be advised as an additional layer of security protection for your accounts and information and to prevent any unauthorized access to your accounts through a third party application. Every log-in attempt from the third party applications you will be prompted with a one time security pass code.
Please feel free to contact us at 1-800-522-4100 ext 3012, if you have any additional questions.
Online Banking Dept.

Sunday thru Saturday, 8 AM to 5 PM ET.

Reference number: LTK1119406713255X Please use this ticket number in any correspondence with us.
Subject: Possible bug on the settings page

Thank you for contacting us.
Please be advised as an additional layer of security protection for your accounts and information and to prevent any unauthorized access to your accounts through a third party application. Every log-in attempt from the third party applications you will be prompted with a one time security pass code.
Please feel free to contact us at 1-800-522-4100 ext 3012, if you have any additional questions.
Online Banking Dept.

Sunday thru Saturday, 8 AM to 5 PM ET. 

Solved! But I don't know how: Quicken was asking me for my bank's registration code every time I ran One Step Update

Quicken was asking me for my bank's registration code every time I ran One Step Update. And I discvered it was a spurious window, because I could cancel out of the window and it proceed with the One Step Update.

But then if I initiate a new One Step Update, it would come back.

I thought I fixed it by clearing cache and cookies in Chrome, but it came back.

So then I uninstalled and reinstalled Quicken. That fixed it but it came back

Then it offered the latest update which I took, but it still failed after the latest update

Then I rebooted again.

Now it's working. I have no idea why.


Solved! Gdrive sharing not including some subfolders


  1. I had created a top level folder in gdrive and moved all my folders into it. That way, I could share the entire top level folder with one particular person
  2. But I found that only some of the subfolders got shared
  3. No amount of googling found me this problem or any answer
  4. I finally decided to try just re-creating new subfolders and moving all the contents. Then I deleted the old, empty, and what-I-consider-to-be-corrupted folders. Easy Peasy
  5. Now all the subfolders are properly shared


Solved! Quickly and easily learn who has access to anything on your Gdrive

  1. Run https://www.whohasaccess.com
  2. Wait for the results
  3. Click on any picture to drill down on what they have access to
  4. When you're done, remember to press the button that deletes all your info from the whohasacess server

If you're worried about the safety of the above link, check it out with virustotal.com first. It's safe.


Solved! Pedometers not working on Moto Z4

When trying yet another pedometer app (this one is called "Pedometer - Step Counter" I did this

  1. My profile
  2. How to fix the "stop counting steps" issue
  3. Update settings
  4. Next
  5. Go to set
  6. All apps
  7. Pedometer - Step Counter (or whatever is the name of your pedometer)
  8. Battery optimization
  9. Click "ALL APPS" this is important
  10. Click on don't optimize

So then I figured out how to get right to "Battery Optimization." Just go to settings, and type into the search "battery optimization."

My final solution

What I really like is Walklogger. So I uninstalled the other one, installed Walklogger, went to settings, "battery optimization," clicked "all apps," found Walklogger, and clicked "don't optimize."

I emailed Joe Rossi this morning

I emailed Joe Rossi this morning. I should have done it sooner, but I sat on it.
Subject: A different perspective on the comment made by Jennifer Hewitt Bishop
Hello. I'm a person who lives in Jersey City (a city considered the second most diverse in our country). I may have a different perspective on what Jennifer Hewitt Bishop said, and which I hope you will take a few moments to consider, just as I have taken a few moments to construct this email for you.
Her comment, although not well constructed, may be an attempt at being diversity-minded and descriptive, with no real intent of judgment. I ran across the following article which describes cultural differences in parenting, and which illustrates my point. Here's just one quote, but I hope you read the article "Both in Japan and Norway, parents are focused on cultivating independence. Children do things alone early, whether it’s walking to school or to the movies."

When people make comments that sound racist, sometimes those comments are indeed racist. But don't we need to ask them first "what did you mean by that"? After all, acknowledging cultural differences is not only not racist, but inclusive. It's a slippery area.
I realize that to consider this perspective can cause political problems. But isn't it the right thing to do anyway? Thank you for your thoughtful consideration of this view.
Sincerely, Mrs. Linda Moran

Solved! Deleting large files and folders from mapped network drive in File Explorer is very slow

The two commands that users require are Del, for deleting files, and Rmdir, for removing directories.
  1. Tap on the Windows-key, type cmd.exe and select the result to load the command prompt.
  2. Navigate to the folder that you want to delete (with all its files and subfolders). Use cd path, e.g. cd o:\backups\test\ to do so.
  3. The command DEL /F/Q/S *.* > NUL deletes all files in that folder structure, and omits the output which improves the process further.
  4. Use cd.. to navigate to the parent folder afterwards.
  5. Run the command RMDIR /Q/S foldername to delete the folder and all of its subfolders.
The commands may require some explanation.
DEL /F/Q/S *.* > NUL
  • /F -- forces the deletion of read-only files.
  • /Q -- enables quiet mode. You are not ask if it is ok to delete files (if you don't use this, you are asked for any file in the folder).
  • /S -- runs the command on all files in any folder under the selected structure.
  • *.* -- delete all files.
  • > NUL -- disables console output. This improves the process further, shaving off about one quarter of the processing time off of the console command.
RMDIR /Q/S foldername
  • /Q -- Quiet mode, won't prompt for confirmation to delete folders.
  • /S -- Run the operation on all folders of the selected path.
  • foldername -- The absolute path or relative folder name, e.g. o:/backup/test1 or test1 

Solved! My new Asus Zenbook with WIndows 10 Pro could not see my NAS device

How I solved it

My NAS device is named OBI-WAN
  1. Found it on my old computer and swiped this: \\OBI-WAN\share
  2. On my new computer, clicked on Map Network Drive
  3. Paste into the folder name
  4. But I get this error message:
    The mapped network drive could not be created because the following error has occurred: You can't connect to the file share because it's not secure. This share requires the obsolete SMB1 protocol, which is unsave and could expose your system to attack. Your system requires SMB2 or higher. For more info on resolving this issue, see: https://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?linkid=852747
  5. I found a workaround. You can enable the SMBv1 Protocol by doing this: 
    1. Open Control Panel
    2. Click Programs
    3. Click on Turn WIndows features on or off link
    4. Expand the SMB 1.0/CIFS File Sharing Support option.
    5. Check the SMB 1.0/CIFS Client option.
    6. Click the OK button.
    7. Restart the machine 
  6. Now try mapping the network drive again. It should work now.

However, there's a more secure way instead

Enable SMB2 in the web interface.

More info

Enable touchscreen on Zenbook

Enable and disable your touchscreen in Windows 10:
In the search box on the taskbar, type Device Manager, then select Device Manager.
Select the arrow next to Human Interface Devices and then select HID-compliant touch screen. (There may be more than one listed.)
Select the Action tab at the top of the window. Select Disable device or Enable device, and then confirm. 

Google Docs -- those darned cutoff tables when you print

You make a beautiful table, but when printed, it's split between two pages, and it confuses your readeres. There's no elegance, but here's a hack

  1. Highlight the bottom row of your table (bottom of the page)
  2. Click the tiny gray arrow at the far right of the row
  3. Hover and choose "select bottom border"
  4. Then on the toolbar, choose border dash, and select the style you want. I like the third of three.
  5. You will now see a signal to your reader that the table continues on the next printed page
  6. In addition, for further clarity, always give your top row of any table a background color. That way, when they don't see the background color, this is another clue that they're looking at a continuation of a table.


Setting up Google Authenticator on a replacement android phone

If you have your old phone
  1. Use your old phone to bring up Google Authenticator
  2. That gives you the list of apps that you have to transfer over to Google Authenticator on your new phone
  3. Now install Google Authenticator on your new phone
  4. On the new phone, go to the first app in the list and log in.
  5. If it prompts you for an authenticator code, get that code from your old phone
  6. Your goal is to have Google Authenticator take a picture of the scancode (barcode, whatever) with your new phone. Depending onn the current app, you may need to choose
    1.  "change authentication device" OR
    2.  "add new authentication method" OR
    3.  "reset authentication method"
  7. Take the picture with the bar code on your new phone
  8. Now repeat the process by going to the second app, third app, etc.
If you don't have your old phone:

  1. This depends on the app: We think there's a prompt where it asks for the authenticator code, where it says "lost my authenticator device," so click that. 
  2. Follow the instructions (we've never tried it)
  3. If that doesn't work, as at the Verizon store


Solved! How to see all my drive pictures from anywhere

Step by step reasoning

  1. I had 100 GB paid storage at 1.99 per month, and was using about 35 GB of it for almost all my files that are not pics or videos.
  2. I wasn't my putting pics there at all because my pictures file is enormous (400 GB). My windows pics are all videos and pictures mixed.
  3. There are three tiers of Google Drive Storage Plans:
    1. 15 GB for free  
    2. 100 GB at 1.99 per month
    3. 200 GB at 2.99 per month or a discounted annual fee
    4. 2 TB at 9.99 per month or a discounted annual fee
  4. I don't want google to have any control over my pics (ie synching)
  5. I do already use google's new feature that does real-time auto-backups of anything I want from my computer to Google's new folder called "Computers." I use it mostly for scans, and they're all in one folder in "My Documents."
  6. I decided to use that same feature to backup the entire pictures folder to google drive. It would also go to the "Computers" folder because that's what Google Drive offers.
  7. So now I have two folders getting uploaded to "Computers." So I had to change the setting to say never delete what got uploaded. This means that moving forward, I do have to delete what's in the scan folder on my hard drive once in a while, as I like to keep that empty. I don't need those scans on my hard drive. But I do want my pictures!
  8. Because I started with 400 GB of pictures, I thought I would have to upgrade to the 2TB plan, which costs $10 per month. 
  9. But as mentioned my pictures have videos mixed in, and I realize I don't have a pressing need to put the movies on Google Drive.  I was able to use a ccleaner feature to find out that without the movies, my pictures only add up to about 75 GB. And the Gdrive upload feature I'm using lets me exclude files! So I excluded all the movie filetypes I could think of. This means I only have to upgrade from the 100 GB (1.99 per month) storage to the 200 GB (2.99 per month) storage.
  10. And because the 200 GB plan gives you a discount for paying annually, which I've chosen to do, it's really only $2.50 a month for the 200 GB plan. So I'm only paying fifty cents more per month now than I was before.
  11. I am going to keep crashplan. Better a belt and suspenders.


Quicken 2019 Premier asks for Quicken ID, then crashes

When I opened my quicken app this morning, it put up a full screen window asking for my Quicken ID and password. Quicken does occasionally ask for this but never in full screen so I already suspected something was wrong.

Once I put the password and id in, it said "success," then showed the quicken app as usual, where I could see the register contents of my top account, but the accounts were not scrollable.

I tried several times going in and out of quicken, and got two different results when I tried putting in the userid and pw again, which it asked for every time I opened quicken.

One result was the "success" and then the dead registers. The other result was a crash window from quicken asking if I wanted to send log data, which I did.

The Windows restore that didn't work

I tried restoring windows because yesterday I had done an update. That didn't work.

The Chat that didn't work

The chat guy insisted that I move my quicken file because I was backing up to the cloud. This made no sense because the folder storing quicken was not part of any cloud sync process that I had. He got me to restore an older (supposedly uncorrupted) file, which worked, until I got off the chat, and tried to run a manual quicken backup for old time's sake. That's when I got message from quicken saying "unable to write to drive C:" followed by a second message "file is not backed up."

Then I started googling.

The Answers

Windows Security Defender Ransomware Protection

Yesterday, I had also discovered that Windows Defender now has ransomware protection. And from googling the quicken problem today, I see that the Windows Security Defender Ransomware Protection blocks quicken.

So I turned off the controlled folder access for ransomware protection. Some people make quicken an exception instead, but I'm fed up with Windows so I shut it down.

I also noticed in Windows notifications that it had blocked nassche.exe (my backup NAS device!) and qw.exe (this one is quicken). So I know this was a problem, and once ransomware was turned off, Quicken was happy once more.


In addition, I had also set up onedrive yesterday, but only synching my desktop. I learned from googling the quicken problem that Onedrive can interfere with Quicken as well (and apparently other cloud services can interfere with Quicken too). I got rid of Onedrive this morning (uninstalled it).


I'm pretty sure what fixed my problem was the ransomware protection but for other people it could be OneDrive or some other cloud backup.


Someone suggested that the quicken backup file names shouldn't be too long, so I fixed that too.


Quicken billpay security

I tried to sign into an old, unused, billpay account for quicken, and a security window came up with two phone numbers that I don't have. It was terrifying. They gave me a phone number to call. After being on hold for fifteen minutes and simultaneously googling, I found an explanation that these phone numbers are EXAMPLE or SAMPLE phone numbers because I must have put in the wrong userid.

So I hung up. It was a terrifying experience. Here's the page.


Easy Windows Editing in Windows 10

  1. Right click on the video and choose open with Photos. 
  2. Once Photos is open, click on the upper right "edit and create." 
  3. Choose "trim." 
  4. Drag the left handle to the starting place. (Leave the pin alone)
  5. Drag the right handle to the ending place. 
  6. What's in between will be your movie.
  7. Click "save a copy."


Solved! Quicken Premier CC-503

Valley Bank was having intermittent outages, announced o ntheir site, wherein I could not get into my Valley Bank online account. Meanwhile, Quicken One Step Update was putting up a box saying the credentials were incorrect and also throwing a CC-503.

I waited a day until the Valley Bank online account was stable, but One Step Update was still failing. I tried all the usual:

  1. Inputting the password again
  2. Resetting
  3. Running One Step Update account by account

Then I got into a chat with Quicken here: https://www.quicken.com/support#windows and after going over all the usual steps from above, he told me to do this:

Launch Quicken and go to Tools > Password Vault > Add/Edit Passwords
-Click on the account in the Password Vault
-Choose Delete Password for the account
-Complete a One Step Update, you will be prompted to enter the password manually
-Type in the password (the same one used on the bank's website) and check in the box marked Save next to the password field
-Click Update Now 

So I followed those steps. After the last step (-Click Update Now) it still appeared to fail with the same error box. But then I tried putting the passwords in yet again, and it worked.



Four Literary Devices to Perfect Your Content Writing

Content Writing has Two Phases:

Phase One is the writing and slight tweaking of your paper

Phase Two is the heavy editing phase. This phase should double the time you just spent. 

So it took three hours to write? It should take at least another three hours to edit. If you plan for this doubling and expect it, you'll write a paper your readers will love.

Why should it take so long to heavy edit?

Because there's plenty to do.  
  1. Make sure your conclusion is clear 
  2. Put extra care into your first and last paragraphs. They are attractive window dressing
  3. Nouns are better than verbs. Verbs are better than adjectives.
  4. Remove all intensifiers such as "very," "extremely," and so forth. For example, replace "very capable" with accomplished. Replace "extremely scared" with "terrified."
  5. Take the time to do a lot of googling for synonyms, antonyms, and definitions.
  6. A piece of writing can make its point and yet fail at engaging the reader. A little extra effort can make the difference between utilitarian and captivating. In your writing, look for a sense of beauty, whether music or food help you.  Think of it as a piece of music in all its variety, designed to delight. Or think of an Indian dish with no spices. Now taste again with the spices. Your guests will now want more. Likewise, expository writing needs linguistic devices:
    1. Punchy words (choose words that need no intensifiers or qualifers)
    2. Parallel Construction (judicous repetition in structure)
    3. Snappy Sentences (mix sentence length)
    4. Rhythmic Phrases (read your words out loud -- you'll hear it or you won't)
    5. Transitional strategies (alert your reader you are moving from one idea to another) 
    6. Active Voice is almost always better than passive voice

Some Resources to study

  1. Eliminate Intensifiers with impactful words
  2. Use Parallel Structure
  3. Vary Your Sentence Length
  4. Use Transitional Devices and Transitional Words

Exercise One:

Analyze this very essay and answer these questions:
  1. What examples of parallel structure can you find in this essay? 
  2. What other linguistic devices can you find in this essay?
  3. What would you do to improve this essay?

Exercise Two:

Write an essay to persuade other college students that the heavy editing phase should double their writing time.